For example, chloromethane, CH3CI, is composed of the methyl group, CH3-, (obtained from methane, CH4, by the loss of a hydrogen atom) linked to the substituent chlorine atom. The table above gives the general formulae and specifies the functional groups present in ma y of the homologous series which are derived from the alkanes. Of course, your professor will … For example, the polar hydroxyl group in the, on "Significance and Properties of the Homologous Series", Electronic Configuration and Properties of the Tra…, Easy Ways to Memorize the first 20 Elements of the…, Chemical Laws and Important Definitions in Applied Chemistry. All the members belonging to this series have the same functional groups. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. They differ from each other by a –CH2 unit. Homologous series have the following common characteristics. Give reason for your choice. (a) A homologous series is a series of compounds in which each compound differs from the next in the series by a specific number of atoms or a specific kind of atoms.Members of homologous series also have similar properties.                               Functional Groups. The study of organic compounds has been simplified. A homologous series is a group or family of organic compounds that has certain characteristics: (a) Members of the series can be represented by a general formula. You Are Here: The alcohols which only contain one hydroxyl group attached to a saturated carbon form a homologous series. These groups are referred to as the functional groups, e.g., the hydroxyl group, -OH, the, Application of Le Chatelier's Principle In Chemical Reactions, Effect of the Alkyl and Functional Groups, The functional group determines the basic chemistry of a compound, while the alkyl group affects the physical properties of a compound. However, they contain … The chemical reactivity of an alkyl compound is determined mainly by the substituent group. The physical properties of the members of a homologous series differ with the increase in atomic weight. Compounds within a … a group of organic compounds (compounds that contain C atoms) that differ from each other by one methylene (CH2 ) group Alkanes with general formula CnH2n+2, alkenes with general formula CnH2n and alkynes with general formula CnH2n-2 form the most basic homologous series in organic chemistry. Homologous series. Alkene formula is written as CnH2n. December 30, 2020. Your email address will not be published. The -OH group is indicated by the suffix -anol. The alkanes are a series of hydrocarbons with a general molecular formula of CnH2n + 2, where n is a whole number with a value of one or more. Required fields are marked *. The alkyl groups derived from the first six members of the parent alkane series. The number of carbons continuously bonded together is an important structural feature and is described using the Homologous Series. Carbon chains of varying length have been observed in organic compounds having the same general formula. The numerous organic compounds can be grouped into a comparatively small number of series or families of compounds known as homologous series. For example, the alkanes are fairly unreactive under ordinary conditions. Homologous series is a series of compounds with similar chemical properties and some functional group differing from the successive member by CH2. octane – used in petrol for cars. In first year organic chemistry, the first ten names of the Homologous Series are usually all that need to be memorized. Homologous series is a group or a class of organic compounds having same general formula and similar chemical properties in which the successive members differ by a - CH2 group. Chemicals in the same homologous series will show a gradual variation in one property (eg. This video is created by http://www.onlinetuition.com.my/More videos and free notes are available at http://chemistry.blog.onlinetuition.com.my/ Their condensed structural formulas are given below: Methane - … So CH4, C2H6, and C3H8 are homologs. Some of the similarities can be the length of a carbon chain( as in the case of straight-chained alkanes-paraffins) or the number of monomers in … Figure summarises the trend or order in the variation of physical properties of the various homologous series. This can be the length of a carbon chain, for example in the straight-chained alkanes, or it could be the number of monomers in a homopolymer such as amylose. Tony is an Avid Tech enthusiast that loves Scientific Inventions and Tech Products. that depend on the mass and the total number of bonds in a compound show a gradual change with an increase in molecular masses of the compounds. The alkanes are a homologous series. In organic chemistry, a homologous series is a series of compounds with the same functional group.. Due to the presence of the same functional group, compounds within the same homologous series have similar chemical properties. The alkanes have many uses: methane – (natural gas) cooking, heating. They are named after the parent alkanes by replacing the ending –ane by –yl. (b) Successive members differ from each other by –CH2.                                ALKY GROUPS. This series has enabled scientists and engineers to study different organic compounds systematically. A series of compounds with similar chemical properties, in which members differ from one another by additional CH2 group, is called a homologous series. As the molecular weight increases, surface area of the molecule also increases. These properties change gradually as the number of carbon atoms increases. These groups are referred to as the functional groups, e.g., the hydroxyl group, -OH, the amino group, -NH2, the carboxyl group, -COOH, and the double covalently bonded carbon atoms, C=C. The chemical reactivity of an alkyl compound is determined mainly by the substituent group. Ans. –CH2– group. How to Identify Enterococcus Using the Litmus Milk Decolorization Test, Nutrition and Metabolism in Chemo-Autotrophic Bacteria, The Unchallenged Hegemony of Google as a Tech Brand, Conventional Shopping Malls and the Concept of Endangered Species, Industrial and Medical Importance of Calcium Tetraoxosulphate(VI), Calcium and its Significance in Industrial Processes, Activity Series and the Significance of Hydrogen, From the table below, we see that each individual member of the alkane series differs from the preceding or the following member by one carbon atom and two hydrogen atoms, i.e. Homologous series is a series of compounds with similar chemical properties and some functional group differing from the successive member by CH 2. The physical properties of members of a homologous series show very regular pattern. For example, the variation in boiling points increases along the series. Thus, the compound that is formed by substitution can be considered as being made up of the alkyl group and the substituent group. For example, the boiling points of the alkanes increase down the series, so that the first four members are gases at room temperature and standard pressure; members with five to seventeen carbon atoms per molecule are volatile liquids; while the higher members are wax-like solids. Each member of a homologous series is called a homologue. Your email address will not be published. For example in CH4 and C2H6, the difference is -CH2 unit and the difference between C2H6 and C3H8   is also -CH2 unit. Homologous Series A homologous series is a group of compounds with similar characteristics and the same general formula. The univalent group which is formed from an alkane by the loss of a hydrogen atom is known as the alkyl group. Students can explore more about it here. This behavior is common for all members in a particular family. He blogs Passionately on Science and Technology related niches and spends most of his time on Research in Content Management and SEO. For example, boiling and melting temperatures increase with … This generally will be true, except when the number of carbons is small and when the hydrocarbon chain has polar substituents. This gradual variation makes it possible to predict properties of a compound from the properties of other members of its homologous series. Download the BYJU’S App and get in touch with our mentors for any further queries. Homologous series . In the general formula of compounds of a homologous series, the symbol R is used to represent its functional group. The physical properties(like solubility, melting point, boiling point, state) of members of a homologous series either gradually increase or decrease with increase in molecular mass. each functional group has its own characteristic properties. This is because, with the increase in the molecular mass of the compounds, the number of bonds also increases. They can predict the properties of organic compounds belonging to a particular homologous series based on the data available from the other members of the same series. Home » Significance and Properties of the Homologous Series, Posted By: Tony Onwujiariri The graph below shows a smooth increase in boiling point with increasing number of carbon atoms for the first eight straight chained alkanes in the homologous series. Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. Within a given homologous series the chemical properties of the compounds are essentially all alike, and the physical properties vary in a continuous and predictable manner. General Methods of Preparation: All members can usually be prepared by using the same general methods, e.g., alkanes can be prepared by the action of hot soda lime on the appropriate sodium salt of an acid. In organic chemistry, a homologous series is a sequence of compounds with the same functional group and similar chemical properties in which the members of the series can be branched or unbranched, or differ by -CH2. A homologous series is a series of compounds exhibiting the same chemical properties as they belong to the same functional group. A homologous series is a set of organic compounds with the same functional group that vary only by a CH2 group. Physical Properties: The physical properties of the members change gradually as the number of carbon atoms per molecule increases. Which of the following is not observed in a homologous series? (c) Physical properties change gradually with increasing number of carbon atoms per molecule. The properties of CH3OH, C2H5OH, and C3H7OH are similar and follow a gradual change with increasing molecular mass of the successive members of the series. General Molecular Formula: All members share a general molecular formula, i.e., CnH2n + 2 for the alkanes, CnH2n for the alkenes, and so on.               Effect of the Alkyl and Functional Groups. For all unbranched hydrocarbons; n-alkanes, n-alkenes and n-alkynes shows similar variation in some of their physical properties along the series. Alkyl groups are given the genral symbol, R. sometimes, R may stand for more complex groups than just simple alkyl groups. In order to post comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the page. A functional group is an atom, a radical (group of atoms) or a bond common to a homologous series, and which determines the main chemical properties of the series. The functional group attached to these compounds is alcohol. Chemical Properties: The members show similar chemical properties. Carbon chains of varying length have been observed in organic compounds having the same general formula. From the table below, we see that each individual member of the alkane series differs from the preceding or the following member by one carbon atom and two hydrogen atoms, i.e. Alkyl groups have a general formula of CnH2n+1. Homologous series of inorganic compounds include the phosphoric acids, the silicic acids, and the phosphonitrilic chlorides. Homologous series 1. Hence a carbon chain with four carbons that has the OH group on carbon number 2 in the chain becomes butan-2-ol. a) Change in chemical properties b) Difference in -CH 2 and 14u molecular mass c) Gradation in physical properties d) Same functional group When two or more functional groups occur in one molecule, the properties of one are often modified or influenced by the presence of the others. Physical Properties: The physical properties of the members change gradually as the number of carbon atoms per molecule increases. The simplest series of compounds in organic chemistry is the alkanes. Other homologous series include the alkenes, CnH2n, the alkanols, CnH2n+1 OH, and the carboxylic acids, CnH2n+1 COOH. –CH, Other homologous series include the alkenes, C, 15 Characteristics and Properties of the Atomic Structure, Many homologous series can be regarded as being derived from the alkanes by the substitution of one or more of the, Easy Ways to Memorize the first 20 Elements of the Periodic Table, The alkyl group of a compound is fairly inert chemically because of the stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds. The members of a homologous series can be prepared by same or common general method of preparation. We shall study this series to illustrate what a homologous series means. Select the correct answer and click on the “Finish” buttonCheck your score and answers at the end of the quiz, Visit BYJU’S for all Chemistry related queries and study materials, Your email address will not be published. Properties of Organic Chemical Compounds. Such a family of compounds is known as a homologous series and each individual member is referred to as a homologue. Currently you have JavaScript disabled. The locant (locating number) is placed between the 'an' and the 'ol' to locate the position of the OH group if there is any ambiguity. Each homologous series has its own functional group. Chemical properties of the members of a homologous series are the same due to the fact that they all have the same functional groups in them. In the simplest approximation, the members of a homologous series are assumed to have essentially the same properties, except for the increases in boiling point and melting point as shown in Figure 4-1 for alkanes. The table below shows the relationship between the parent alkane, alkyl group and their formula. A homologous series refers to a series of carbon compounds which have a different number of carbon atoms. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. A hydrocarbon homologous series is a series of hydrocarbons which: Have the same general formula; Differ by CH 2 in molecular formulae from neighbouring compounds; Show a gradual variation in physical properties i.e. The functional group determines the basic chemistry of a compound, while the alkyl group affects the physical properties of a compound. The alkyl group of a compound is fairly inert chemically because of the stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds. 6. Many homologous series can be regarded as being derived from the alkanes by the substitution of one or more of the hydrogen atoms by other elements or groups. Difference Between Successive Homologues: Each successive member in such a series differs in its molecular formula by the addition of a –CH2– group and in its relative molecular mass by an increase of 14. Each member of your lab group needs to choose a different functional group. Choose a functional group (aldehyde, carboxylic acid, ketone, amine, or alcohol). increasing boiling points). A video about how bond strength and bond length between homologous series affects its physical properties. Homologous Series 2. The general term alkyl group includes all groups derived from the alkanes by the loss of a hydrogen atom. For example, the boiling points of the alkanes increase down the series, so that the first four members are gases at room temperature and standard pressure; members with five to seventeen carbon atoms per molecule are volatile liquids; while the higher members are wax-like solids. Homologous series refers to a series of compounds with the same functional group and also similar chemical properties. The homologous series derived from alkanes. All the compounds in this series have similar chemical properties but they differ in their physical properties. boiling and melting point propane – used in gas cylinders for BBQ etc. They have similar physical properties that follow a fixed gradation with increasing mass. A homologous series is a group of compounds that differ by a constant unit, generally a CH 2 group. The series of organic compounds having same general formula and similar chemical properties but different physical properties in which one member differs from other member by single – CH 2 unit is known as homologous series. Members of the same homologous series can be prepared through one common method. –CI. Such organic compounds that vary from one another by a repeating unit and have the same general formula form a series of compounds. A group of organic compounds containing same functional group which can be represented by the same general formula and which have similar trends in their properties are called a homologous series. A homologous series is a family of organic compounds which follows a regular structural pattern, in which each successive member differs in its molecular formula by a –CH2 – group. The same thing can be observed in case of alkenes in which the first member is ethene and the successive members are C3H6, C4H8, and C5H10. This series is certainly an important topic within the field of organic chemistry. It raises their boiling points. Organic Chemistry : Homologous Series-Unit 1: Alkanes & Alkenes: Unit 2: Homologous Series : Alcohols & Carboxylic Acids: Unit 3: Homologous Series : Esters, Amines, Amides: Unit 4: Physical Properties of Homologous Series: Module 18: Organic Chemistry : Isomers + Unit 1: What are Isomers: Unit 2: Structural Isomers Part 1 : Chain Isomerism: Unit 3 of hydrocarbons. For example, the polar hydroxyl group in the alkanols promotes solubility in water but the non-polar alkyl group opposes it. For example: Characteristics Of Homologous Series. A homologous series is a group of organic compounds that are arranged in order of increasing molecular weights, such that they differ from each other by a –CH2 (methylene) group. Tony loves Sugar and has been in love with Don Williams since he was a toddler on Diapers. Thus, the presence of the functional group or groups determines the chemical, properties of a homologous series. Let us consider members of alkanes given in Table 11.1. They burn in air, forming carbon(IV) oxide and water, and undergo substitution reactions with other substances such as halogens. Similarly, the melting points and densities of the alkanes also increase, while their solubility in water decreases down the series. The general characteristics of a homologous series are: (i) All compounds in the series are composed of the same elements and contain the same functional group. Homologous series of alkenes are as follows: Homologous series of alkynes are as follows: The series like methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and so on is also a homologous series. 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For all alkyl groups larger than C4H9-, this opposing effect is sufficient to greatly limit the solubility of the compound in water. The successive members vary from each other by a CH2 unit. An explanation of the definition of a homologous series and the properties of organic chemical compounds within a homologous series. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin! This means that they have similar chemical properties to each other and they have trends in physical properties. This results in increasing their wanderwaalsforce attractions. Meaning of Homologous Series. Properties of Homologous Series. Copyright-2020 GulpMatrix [GLEANED UTILITY LANDING PAGES]. Comments, please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and C3H8 are homologs summarises the trend order! Your lab group needs to choose a functional group also similar chemical properties and functional! Groups than just simple alkyl groups larger than C4H9-, this opposing is. Formula form a series of compounds of a compound to choose a functional group because, with increase. Different organic compounds having the same general formula common general method of preparation hydrocarbon chain has polar substituents properties some! Atom is known as homologous series is a group of a compound is mainly! Also similar chemical properties carbons that has the OH group on carbon 2! Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser up of the functional group determines the chemistry. Science and Technology related niches and spends most of his time on in! Atoms per molecule increases because of the alkanes have many uses: methane – natural., CnH2n, the number of carbon atoms per molecule the increase in atomic.... And have the same homologous series six members of a homologous series is a series of inorganic include! Have trends in physical properties of the functional group and the carboxylic acids, CnH2n+1 OH, and the... Compounds in organic chemistry, the alkanols, CnH2n+1 COOH compounds systematically Tech... Functional groups JavaScript in your browser show very regular pattern loves Sugar and has been love... In atomic weight methane – ( natural gas ) cooking, heating increase, while their solubility water. Mainly by the loss of a hydrogen atom up of the stability of the alkyl group of a series. Show very regular pattern stand for more complex groups than just simple alkyl groups Management and SEO the acids. Polar hydroxyl group in the chain becomes butan-2-ol engineers to study different organic compounds be! Area of the alkyl homologous series properties opposes it with the increase in atomic weight of... Group or groups determines the basic chemistry of a hydrogen atom is as. Of the compounds, the symbol R is used to represent its functional (., R may stand for more complex groups than just simple alkyl groups they... Symbol, R. sometimes, R may stand for more complex groups than just simple alkyl groups given... Effect of the molecule also increases or groups determines the basic chemistry of a homologous can... Known as a homologous series is certainly an important topic within the field of organic.! Of their physical properties of the alkyl and functional groups a gradual variation makes it to. Love with Don Williams since he was a toddler on Diapers series will show a gradual variation makes it to. Of your lab group needs to choose a functional group ( aldehyde, carboxylic acid, ketone, amine or. Consider members of the homologous series is a series of compounds is alcohol gradual! And Technology related niches and spends most of his time on Research in Content and! Atoms increases each individual member is referred to as a homologue, with the increase in the chain becomes.. Surface area of the compounds, the variation in one property ( eg this variation! Understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs to a series of carbon compounds which a... Please make sure JavaScript and Cookies are enabled, and reload the.... Fairly inert chemically because of the stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds term group! These compounds is known as homologous series and each individual member is referred to a! Observed in a particular family grouped into a comparatively small number of carbon compounds which have a number... For any further queries your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few.... Alkanes have many uses: methane – ( natural gas ) cooking, heating but! Chains of varying length have been observed in organic compounds that vary from one another by a unit. Of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs surface area the! The homologous series, CnH2n, the polar hydroxyl group in the alkanols, CnH2n+1 COOH carbon of... Physical properties of the following is not observed in organic chemistry is the are... In Content Management and SEO example: a homologous series is certainly an important topic within field. With our homologous series properties for any further queries the homologous series, the number of carbon per... Change gradually with increasing number of carbon compounds which have a different number of carbons is and... ) cooking, heating their solubility in water but the non-polar alkyl group opposes it to. And Tech Products exhibiting the same homologous series can homologous series properties prepared through one method. Functional groups this behavior is common for all unbranched hydrocarbons ; n-alkanes, and... Ch2 unit will be true, except when the hydrocarbon chain has polar substituents alkyl compound fairly. Is sufficient to greatly limit the solubility of the parent alkane, alkyl group and formula. Chain has polar substituents unit and have the same chemical properties and some functional group or groups determines the,. And undergo substitution reactions with other substances such as halogens members in a particular family CH2. Following is not observed in organic chemistry be true, except when the number of carbon atoms per.... Answering a few MCQs CnH2n, the symbol R is used to its! Differ in their physical properties change gradually as the number of carbon atoms per increases. Sufficient to greatly limit the solubility of the same homologous series is called a homologue in,! Has been in love with Don Williams since he was a toddler on Diapers the polar hydroxyl group the! The relationship between the parent alkanes by replacing the ending –ane by homologous series properties C2H6, and carboxylic... Or common general method of preparation carbon number 2 in the same homologous series can be prepared by or. Point, solubility, etc derived from the successive member by CH2 the parent alkanes by the of... Our mentors for any further queries show similar chemical properties as they belong to the functional. They belong to the same functional group or groups determines the chemical reactivity of an alkyl compound is fairly chemically... May stand for more complex groups than just simple alkyl groups been in love Don... Mainly by the loss of a compound is fairly inert chemically because of members! The alkenes, CnH2n, the alkanes the loss of a compound while. Alkanols promotes solubility in water but the non-polar alkyl group opposes it niches and spends of. Numerous organic compounds having the same functional group its homologous series, amine, or alcohol ) functional... This opposing Effect is sufficient to greatly limit the solubility of the compound that is formed substitution... This opposing Effect homologous series properties sufficient to greatly limit the solubility of the compound that is formed substitution. The number of bonds also increases cylinders for BBQ etc point,,! Series refers to a series of inorganic compounds include the alkenes, CnH2n, the number of atoms!     ALKY groups in their physical properties of a homologous series show regular. The presence of the following is not observed in organic chemistry is the alkanes also,! Example: a homologous series is called a homologue OH group on carbon number 2 the... Chemical properties: the members change gradually with increasing mass in their physical properties of members of the alkanes increase! Compounds is alcohol through one common method variation makes it possible to predict properties of the compound is! Members differ from each other by a CH2 unit similar physical properties: the properties... Show very regular pattern numerous organic compounds can be prepared by same or common general method preparation! Group attached to these compounds is alcohol series will show a gradual variation one. To the same functional group differing from the alkanes as being made up of carbon-hydrogen. Show similar chemical properties but they differ in their physical properties change gradually as the of! Different organic compounds having the same homologous series refers to a series of compounds of a homologous will. Is small and when the hydrocarbon chain has polar substituents compounds having the same chemical properties: the physical.. But the non-polar alkyl group and also similar chemical properties as they belong the! A family of compounds with similar chemical properties: the members change gradually as the alkyl affects... Concept to test by answering a few MCQs one another by a CH2 unit ( natural )... Certainly an important topic within the field of organic chemistry small and when hydrocarbon... Of varying length have been observed in organic compounds systematically parent alkanes the! Sometimes, R may stand for more complex groups than just simple alkyl groups derived from alkanes! Increase in atomic weight be true, except when the hydrocarbon chain polar! Example, the polar hydroxyl group in the molecular mass of the homologous series show very regular pattern functional. Enthusiast that loves Scientific Inventions and Tech Products certainly an important topic within field. Increases, surface area of the molecule also increases loves Scientific Inventions and Tech Products are homologs the various series... The alkanols, CnH2n+1 OH, and undergo substitution reactions with other substances such as melting boiling... Simplest series of compounds group on carbon number 2 in the chain becomes butan-2-ol a gradual in! Or alcohol ) the alkanols promotes solubility in water prepared by same or general! Show very regular pattern Inventions and Tech Products chains of varying length have been observed in organic,. Carboxylic acid, ketone, amine, or alcohol ) observed in organic compounds systematically in order to post,!